Ischemia is characterized by a specific condition, where there is an insufficient flow of blood supply to tissues, leading to a shortage of oxygen and glucose which is needed for cellular metabolism. Due to an obstruction and insufficient blood supply, various organs and tissue get severely damaged. Ischemia, if left untreated, may lead to tissue death. Ischemia is primarily caused by thrombosis of an artery, embolism, vasculitis, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease. There are various types of ischemia with different diagnosis and treatment methods involved with each type of ischemia.
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- Myocardial ischemia: Due to blockage of a coronary artery, there is a limited blood flow to the heart muscle and is referred to as myocardial ischemia. Symptoms include arm pain, chest pain, breathlessness, dizziness, weakness, heart palpitations and clammy skin.
- Cerebral ischemia: Cerebral ischemia occurs when there is a temporary deficiency of blood supply to an individual’s brain. Symptoms include difficulty in speaking, lack of coordination, body movement problems, vision impairment and unconsciousness.
- Intestinal ischemia: Ischemia affects intestine too, and this condition is known as intestinal ischemia. Various symptoms include abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, bloody stools and weight loss.
- Hepatic ischemia: In hepatic ischemia, an individual’s liver does not receive enough blood supply. Hypotension is the prime cause of hepatic ischemia and symptoms include dehydration, heart failure, severe bleeding and abnormal heart rhythms.
- Acute limb ischemia: Decreased level of blood flow to hands, feet and legs leads to acute limb ischemia. Symptoms include skin ulcers, skin sores and severe pain.
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- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
- Beta blockers
- Surgery methods:
- Angioplasty, also referred to as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
- Coronary artery bypass surgery
- Aortomesenteric bypass and resection of bowel
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